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Many internationalization theories were developed to explain different paths and performances of companies on foreign ma

This commentary essay considers the themes in Wu and Lin 2010 against the backdrop of the considerable volume of researc

Our findings reveal that adaptation is positively associated with performance in foreign markets This relationship is a

Consistent with contingency theory e.g..

Drazin and Van de

our findings demonstrate that superior performance by emerging market exporters results .

The theories can be grouped into two broad categories “traditional” IB FME theories that have been applied since s s.

namely transaction cost

Abstract Wu and Lin 2010 extend several prominent themes in the experience and subsidiary performance literature in the

According to Dunning and Lundan 2008.

foreign investments undertaken by multinationals fall into four main types 1 Resource seeking. 2 Market seeking

3 .

Key Words Internationalization.

Mode Change and Choice.

International Strategy

Decision Making Over time

the newly internationalized firm will begin the .

Competitive dynamics of the domestic market Exporting to either less developed markets or advanced markets Formulation

Although this theory has become quite important to economics.

its utility is doubtful. For example.

an investor thinks a stock is going to go up
and by buying it


In this paper

we discuss the impact Brexit will have on the UK economy Starting from the premise that Brexit will reduce economic in

The following are the general features of the modern theory of international trade i. No Need for a Separate Theory According to the classical economists.


Globalization and international competition have driven a large number of small and medium sized enterprises SMEs to en

The oil and the corn markets have had long periods of backwardation

but gold has rarely been backwardated. Although the oil market has been backwardated for most of this period.

oil has recently been in contango.

which is unusual from historical standards Lastly

the copper market switches from backwardation to contango .

One of the main criticisms is that the theory fails to explain why different satisfaction factors can be arrived at by combining implicitly and explicitly derived importance scores. Brandt s Method Brandt s Penalty‐Reward‐Contrast analysis is a performance ‐only approach.

which only focuses on one variable i e

the satisfaction Fuchs amp Weiermair.


A higher valued currency makes a country s imports less expensive and its exports more expensive in foreign markets Exc

The findings indicated that six theories can be associated to the factors influencing the choice of FDI locations
namely capital market theory
transaction cost theory
product life cycle theory

Successful foreign market entrants typically leverage market knowledge to match the features and marketing of their product or service with foreign customer characteristics e.g..


As part of the circles of progression.


Mapesela and Beylefeld 2008 classified family background

school background.


and finance as pre entry factors influencing student success

Keynesian economics is an economic theory of total spending in the economy and its effects on output and inflation Keyn

They include capital markets

Wall Street
and even simply the markets ” Whatever you call them

financial markets are where traders buy and sell assets. These include stocks.



foreign exchange

and commodities. The markets are where businesses go to raise cash to grow. It’s where companies reduce risks and .

Liberalism is the culmination of developments in Western society that produced a sense of the importance of human indivi

a liberation of the individual from complete subservience to the group.

and a relaxation of the tight hold of custom.

and authority. In this respect.

liberalism stands for the emancipation of the individual..

As far as portfolio allocation and performance measures.

shows that the average median Foreign country bias. \chi


C 096 0.038.

indicating that.

on average
professional money managers allocate. 6 more to a given foreign market than the market ’s weight in the global portfolio..

Gross National Product GNP Gross national product GNP.

is an estimate of total value of all the final products and services produced in a given period by the means of product

Studies on the relationship between level of internationalization and performance of new ventures show conflicting resul

Here are nine proven theories of performance management 1 Maslow s hierarchy of needs Maslow s hierarchy of needs is

starting with the most basic and increasing to higher level needs The theory states that only once an

Sabon Gari Market is a popular and one of the largest markets in Kano state

Nige ria which attracts customers from all ove r the Northern and other par t of Nigeria Sabon

The main objective of service marketers is to create and provide service that satisfies consumer needs and expectations.

therefore achieving organizational goals. Consequently.

marketers should work on understanding how people make their buying decisions and what determines their satisfaction during the service consumption stages .

Drawing on the notion of fit theory together with moderation contingent logic.

this study investigates the effects of international performance and internal strategic fit as well as the moderating


it is possible to identify the features that have the greatest influence on user satisfaction Bailom et al
1996. Thus.

the Kano categories lead to a hierarchy of the features that a product e g
the PHR app should contain providers should fulfill all basic needs

be competitive in terms of performance needs.

and offer selected

The academic who funded the competing firm affirms that the initial international success was important for him in terms

and facing the challenges of dealing with foreign clients


although being in the same region.

had different negotiating customs and

According to a report published by the catering services and food contractors’ global market.

the global catering services market is expected to grow from..

to. at a compound annual growth rate CAGR 4. This growth is mainly due to companies rearranging their operations and .

shows the descriptive statistics and the correlations in the performance model by differentiating between the financial
a and b.

respectively. As can be observed.

the correlations are quite moderate The only exceptions that the correlations between

The joint venture structure may be required because of imperfect external markets for the knowledge involved
but the win win value proposition may still be easy to formulate
and the related resource recombination process may be easy to complete.


if it simply entails delivering standard goods from the perspective of the foreign MNE to

The Network Model based in the U model.

views INT as exploitation of network advantage.

focusing on how firms utilize relationships as bridges to other networks Tang and Liu.

2011. NWG .

Despite the fact that different theories have been applied and different conceptual models have been proposed regarding

no review studies have adopted the combined perspective In fact

although scholars have long emphasized the importance of applying different theories in understanding .

It is a framework created by Howard V Perlmuter and Wind and Douglas It is designed to be used in an internationalizati
there are four management approaches that

Abstract Kano
once a promising and resourceful power

has been caught in a spiral of economic and socio political decay. This book highlights on the politics of development looking at gargantuan .

Rimi market
popularly known as the Sabon Gari market in Kano State It is an open air market particularly known for discounted household items.

including Foodstuff.


Pepper. 8. Yankura This Is a large and expansive market Located at Ahmadu Bello way. The market consists of traders from different ethnic groups in Nigeria..

This argument is in line with research showing that knowledge of new foreign market opportunities is often gathered thro
2000. Most family firms focus on long term growth in the strategic planning following an unexpected shock.

and new market entry prepares for post shock .

Design methodology approach The theoretical background of the present study is based on the agency theory Ownership st

insider shareholdings
foreign shareholders and government shareholdings.

while return on assets ROA
return on equity ROE

market to book ratio MBR and

This paper reviews the advantages and disadvantages associated with its use in a teaching and learning context and suggests some guidelines and pedagogical strategies that need to be considered .

Cambrist An individual who is deemed to have above average knowledge of the foreign exchange market A cambrist can rel

2.1. Foreign market knowledge. FMK is an integral success factor for firms undertaking international operations Mostafiz et al..

a Eriksson et al
have proposed three types of FMK
which are a foreign business knowledge.

b foreign institutional knowledge.

and c internationalisation knowledge. Foreign business .

Scholars have given considerable attention to the development of the various theories of internationalization and foreig

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